First, quadratic forms over the field of p-adic rational numbers were linked to substitution matrices, to molecular evolution and to symmetries by base substitutions of degeneracy in the genetic code.
Second, quadratic forms over the field of rational numbers were linked to kinetic energy during protein folding. The codon arrangement in the genetic code was analyzed in this context. A method to predict edge strands in beta-sheets from protein sequences was derived. Such rules between protein sequence and structure allow applications to be envisioned for the critical assessment of techniques in protein structure prediction (CASP) challenges and in structural genomics.